Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus By dr barri lodin It is a clinical syndrome or state which is characterized by hyperglycemia. Types of diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus has two types. 1. Primary diabetes mellitus which is further two type 1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus 2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus 2. Secondary diabetes mellitus  which could be due to […]

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PUBERTY

PUBERTY by mateen fazil The hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian acis is function ally complete during the latter half of regal life Five stages of puberty 1- Growth spurt 2-Breast devlopment 3-pubic hair Growth 4-Menstruation 5-Axillary hair growth BREAST DEVLOPMENT The breast bud responds to the production of oestradiol by the ovary which is itself reliant on GnRH production […]

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THE ENDOMETRIAL CYCLE

THE ENDOMETRIAL CYCLE by samira kohdamani The endometrium responds to the ovarian hormones , oestogens and progesterone . The ovarian activity is divided into follicular and luteal phases . Oestrogens are produced during the follicular and luteal phases , but progesterone is produced only by corpus luteum during the luteal phase . The endometrial response […]

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AMENORRHEA

Amenorrhoea by woranga Akbari Amenorrhoea is defined as the absence of menstruation. It has two types *Primary amenorrhoea is when girls fail to menstruate by 16 years of age *secoundary amenorrhoea is absence of menstruation for more than six months in a normal female of reproductive age that is not due to pregnancy , lactation […]

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PEPTIC ULCER

by Doctor Nawid khpulwak the term peptic ulcer applies to mucousal ulceration near the acid bearing regions of Gastrontestinal tract. sites of peptic ulcer: duodenum 90-95% stomach more then 90% esophagous in reflux esophagitis jejunum in zolinger elison syndrome Meckle’s diverticolum which contain ectopic gastric mucousa. ETIOLOGY: 1- halicobacter pylori (90% duodinal & 70% gastric […]

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Fluid therapy

by Drs Woranga Akbari Fluid therapy: Body fluid compartments : total body water (TBW) approximately 60% of body weight (BW) and is divided among the intracellular volume as 40 % of BW and an extracellular volume representing 20% of BW. The ECV is divided further into an interstitial fluid volume which roughly 15 % of […]

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