Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding-By:Dr Amir sayeed Hashimi

By Dr Amir sayeed Hashimi Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding refers to blood loss within the intraluminal gastrointestinal tract from any location between the upper esophagus to the duodenum at the ligament of Treitz. The onset and severity of blood loss can range from intermittent and low-grade occult bleeding presenting as occult-blood-positive stools […]

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Peptic Ulcer Disease

Peptic ulcer BY: DR. Ahmadullah (Barak) Peptic ulcer is a break in the gastric or duodenal mucosa that arises when the normal mucosal defensive factors are impaired or are overwhelmed by aggressive luminal factors such as acid and pepsin. Sites • Duodenum. 90 -95% of duodenal ulcers occur in the first portion of duodenum. • […]

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Cellulitis – By:Dr Barri Lodin

By Dr Barri Lodin Cellulitis: Cellulitis is a skin infection that develops as a result of bacterial entry via breaches in the skin barrier. Clinical manifestations: 1. Erythema 2. Edema 3. Warmth Predisposing factors Predisposing factors include 1. Disruption to the skin barrier as a result of trauma 2. Inflammation 3. Preexisting skin infection Diagnosis […]

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Gastritis and Gastropathy – By:Dr Barri Lodin

By Dr Barri Lodin Gastritis and Gastropathy Inflammation of gastric mucosa is called gastritis. Gastropathy It is a condition in which endothelium, epithelium and mucosa are damaged without inflammation. Gastritis It has two types. 1. Erosive gastritis 2. Non-erosive gastritis. ​Sub-types of ​Erosive gastritis 1. NSAID induced gastritis 2. Stress gastritis 3. Alcoholic gastritis NSAID […]

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MALABSORPTION -By : Dr Amir sayeed Hashemi

By Dr Amir sayeed Hashemi MALABSORPTION Diarrhea and weight loss in patients with a normal diet is likely to be caused by malabsorption. The symptoms are diverse in nature and variable in severity. A few patients have apparently normal bowel habit but diarrhea is usual and may be watery and voluminous. Bulky, pale and offensive […]

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ZOLINGER ELISON SYNDROME(ZES)

by doctor Nawid khpulwak this is an uncommon but sever sever peptic ulcer disorder due to gatrinoma a gastrin sectring nerorndocrin tumors in which execive amount of gastrin stimulates parital cell of stoamch in and leading to hypersectrion of acids. if mucousal barrier is lost due to smoking,NSAIDs,alcohol ingestion or any other pathology this execive […]

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PEPTIC ULCER

by Doctor Nawid khpulwak the term peptic ulcer applies to mucousal ulceration near the acid bearing regions of Gastrontestinal tract. sites of peptic ulcer: duodenum 90-95% stomach more then 90% esophagous in reflux esophagitis jejunum in zolinger elison syndrome Meckle’s diverticolum which contain ectopic gastric mucousa. ETIOLOGY: 1- halicobacter pylori (90% duodinal & 70% gastric […]

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ESOPHAGEAL DISORDERS

SYMPTOMS OF ESOPHAGEAL DISORDERS: 1-Dysphagia 2-Odynophagia 3-Heartburn DYSPHAGIA: deficultiy in swallowing is called dysphagia.following are the causes of dysphagia. A) dysphagia for solid dysphagia for solid is a definitive feature of mechanical obstruction of esophagous which may be coused by intrensic pressure such as benign esophageal stricture esophageal webs and scatzki’s ring esophageal tumors Extrensic […]

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Abdominal Examination

ABOMINAL EXAMINATION: abdominal  abdominal examination is essential in evaluation and diagnosis of gastrointestinal patholgies before starting the examination there are certain symtops in relation to gastrointetinal disorders which makes focus on some specific regions of abdomine. SYMPTOMS: all the detail must be asked about the symotom  from the patinet in order to differenciate between the various […]

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